Whether you are using a C battery, or a AA battery, they will always be inside of the container or case. They are molded with a cathode, utilizing manganese dioxide, and this will allow the conductors to convey electrical charges through them. There’s going to be a separator that must be in place. This is a type of paper that prevents the cathode from interacting directly with the anode, which is where the negative charge is located. The electrolyte and anode are in the battery itself. There is also a brass pen, and a collector for negative current, that will be centralized in the battery.
The cell of the battery is built with three separate components. This will include the double electrodes and the electrolyte solution between them which must be there for the battery to work. When the electrolyte is added, which is potassium hydroxide mixed with water, this is going to allow the movement of ions. When the ions begin to move, the electric current in the battery will allow to power different devices. Visiting a battery shop will provide you with a variety of batteries to choose from.
The negative and positive terminals of the battery utilize different metal plates which are called electrodes, all of which are immersed in different chemicals within the battery which are part of the entire process of how a battery is able to function. When there is a chemical reaction, between the different types of metal, electrons can begin to move building up negative charge (there is a metal plate that is connected to the negative terminal of the battery) and what will be produced will be a shortage of electrons, specifically on the positive electrode side (this is the other metal plate which is connected to the positive terminal).
When using small batteries, or batteries for flashlight, the terminals are going to be in the batteries at the end. Whether you are using AA batteries, D batteries, or any of the others, you will notice a plus and minus symbol that will make them very easy to install in the proper direction. When you are using a larger battery, such as what you will have in your vehicle, the terminals are going to point up or out. (Sometimes they will resemble screw tops.)
Voltage is ultimately created due to the difference between the number of electrons that can be found on the negative and positive terminals. Electricity always wants to find balance, and therefore the excess electrons will be pushed out from the negative electrode going toward the positive one. Inside of the battery, there are chemicals that will prevent them from traveling to the electrodes. Should there be an alternate path for them to travel, from the electrode that is negative to the positive one, the voltage will inevitably push all of the electrons in this direction.
Connecting the battery to any circuit will provide that alternate path that the electrons are going to follow. All of these excess electrons flow from the negative terminal, going down the circuit, back to the positive terminal. This flow is what allows the batteries to power your devices.
Electrodes which are connected to any type of circuit, such as a flashlight, or the battery in your car, this is when electrolytes begin to start reacting.
Electron flow, by the chemicals in the battery, react with metal, creating a charge on the negative electrode, and this will allow things to start flowing as long as there is a complete path for the current to follow. Batteries that are connected for a long time and eventually will use up all of the chemicals side and that is why the battery dies (no longer is capable of producing electrical voltage or current).